Thursday, June 05, 2008

Islamic Historians (part VI)

Ibn Athir (1160-1233 AD)
ابن اثير
Full: Izzeddin Ali ibn Athir
عزالدين علي بن اثير
Work: Al Kamel fit Tarikh (Complete History)
الکامل في التاريخ

An important and well known historian of the sixth and seventh Hijri centuries, Ibn Athir (555 – 630 Hijri), continues Tabari’s work and recounts the events of the centuries after Tabari. He presents valuable facts concerning the Mongol and Tatar invasions in Aran (Aghvank) and Shirvan. He has always mentioned Aghvank distinct from Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) throughout his book. For instance, regarding the Seljuk sultan Mahmood he writes: “The vast realm of Mahmood consisted of Rey and its districts, the city (land) of Jebal, Isfahan, Fars, Khuzestan, Iraq, Azarbaijan (the real H.), Aran (Aghvank H.), Armenia, Diarbekr, Jazira (Mesopotamia), Mosul, Sham (Syria H.) and other places.”

He narrates the events of 430 Hijri and informs that tens of thousands of Turks “raided Muslim (conquered H.) lands around Kashghar and Blasghun, pillaged and plundered, then converted to Islam and beheaded twenty thousand sheep on the day of Eed Qurban… Before that, these tribes had to stay together to defend themselves from the Muslims but after accepting Islam, they dispersed and were scattered throughout Muslim lands…”

Relating the events of 440 Hijri Ibn Athir says: “In this year, a huge number of Oghuz Turks (Seljuks H.) came to Ibrahim Yenal (half sibling of Tughril and the ruler of Rey and Hamadan). He told them: my land does not have the capacity of housing and feeding you. You’d better go to Rum (Asia Minor), fight the infidels in the Cause of Allah.”

In 440s Hijri (1054 AD), Tughril invaded Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) and headed towards Tabriz. Amir Wahsoodan ibn Muhammad Ravvadi the ruler of that land offered his submission to Tughril… Later out of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan), Tughril took the direction of Aran (Aghvank) and raided Ganja (Gandzak), the capital of Aran (Aghvank). Abul Aswar the ruler of Ganja submitted as well. Tughril took some hostages from local rulers but allowed them to govern their land according to Ibn Athir.

The sad events of 457 Hijri (1065 AD) are also mentioned by Ibn Athir (he cites 456 Hijri as the date of this event). On this ill day befell the tragedy of the rape of Ani by the bloodthirsty Alp Arslan, the Seljuk bandit “king”. On Turkish websites, the Seljuk calamity is presented as the salvation of Armenians from the Byzantines. The Turkish disinformation has the easy job of twisting historical facts 180 degrees and spamming the lies all over the internet to increase the credibility of their falsifications. ●

Yaqut Hamawi (1179-1229 AD)
ياقوت حموي
Full: Abu Abdullah Yaqut ibn Abdullah Hamawi
ابوعبدالله ياقوت بن عبداله حموي
Work: Mo’jam al Buldan (Book of Countries)
معجم البلدان

The sixth/Seventh centuries Hijri geographer Yaqut Hamawi is the author of the well known geographic encyclopedia Mo’jam al Buldan.

Yaqut believes that Aran is an Iranian name. According to him, “Between Aran (Aghvank H.) and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan H.) there’s a river called Aras (Arax H.). Aran is situated to the north of Aras and Azarbaijan lies to the south of this river”. Still no “Azerbaijan” north of the Arax! He also cites Deylam, Gilan and Tarom as the internal eastern limits of Azarbaijan (the real). Yaqut mentions Tabriz “the largest city of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan H.). Its other cities are Maragha, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Ardebil, Marand, etc.”

The Mughan plain in southeast of present day fake “Azerbaijan” is the land of origin of a people known as Mokk in Armenian and reported by Herodotus as Mycians (Miks, Muxoi, Mukhoi). In Islamic texts they are referred to as the Mughan. Yaqut Hamawi relates the mythological origins of Gilan (north of Iran, near the Caspian, Mazandaran and Azarbaijan the real) and Mughan and believes they are proper names. He says: “Mughan and his brother Gilan were sons of Kashaj ibn Japheth ibn Nuh (Noah H.) and they lived in Tabaristan (Mazandaran H.).” This story reveals that the peoples of Gilan and Mughan are related from ancient times and are of Iranian origin.

Describing the language of the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) Yaqut Hamawi pulverizes the myth of Azari having anything to do with Turkish: “they speak a language which is called Azari and nobody understands it besides themselves”. ●

Zachariah Qazvini (Ghazvini) (1203-1283 AD)
زكريا قزويني
Full: Zachariah Emadeddin ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmood Qazvini
زكريا عمادالدين بن محمدبن محمود قزويني
Works: Athar al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad (Vestiges of Countries and Information on Men), Aja’eb ul Makhluqat wa Ghara’eb ul Mawjudat (Marvels of Creature and Strange Beings)
آثارالبلاد واخبارالعباد
عجائب المخلوقات و غرائب الموجودات

In Zachariah Qazvini’s geographical work about Aghvank we read: “Aran (Aghvank H.) is a land near Azarbaijan (the real H.), Armenia and Abkhazia where there are many cities. The provinces of Aran are Ganja (Gandzak H.), Shirvan and Beylakan (Pytakaran H.) …The River Kur runs between Armenia and Aran …Mughan is a vast province in Azarbaijan (the real H.).” ●

Hamdollah Qazvini (Ghazvini) (1281-1349 AD)
حمدالله قزويني
Full: Zineddin Ibn Hamdollah Mostowfi Qazvini
زين الدين بن حمدالله مستوفي قزويني
Work: Nuzhat ul Qulub (The Delight of Hearts)
نزهت القلوب

Hamdollah Qazvini (seventh/eighth centuries Hijri) cites the cities of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan), among others: “Tabriz, Oujan, Ardebil, Khalkhal, Shahrood, Meshkin, Anar, Ahar, Nowzar, Khoy, Salmas, Urmia, Sarab, Miana, Maragha, Marand, Zanjan…” where not a single one of them has anything to do with Aghvank.

Writing about the language of the people of Maragha in real Azarbaijan he confirms: “they speak a modified dialect of Pahlavi”. This shows that as late as the eighth century Hijri (14th century AD), the darkest days of the Mongol rule, the people of Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan) still spoke their original Iranian language and not Turkish. ●

Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
ابن خلدون
Full: Abu Zayd Abdurrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun
ابو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون

An internationally respected scholar, Ibn Khaldun was born in 732 Hijri in Tunis and died in 808 Hijri. He met Teimur (Timberline) in Damascus when Teimur held it under siege. Writing about lands under Islamic rule, he considers Aran (Aghvank) of its fifth part and a land neighboring Armenia and Azarbaijan (Atrpatakan). He reports the Mongol invasion of Aran in 618 Hijri and their pillage of Beylakan (Pytakaran) and also the attack of the Georgians, who he mistakenly considers Turks (!), in 619 Hijri. ●


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